The paper presents the approach to planning curriculum based on constructivist theories. In preschool and early school education it is described as emergent curriculum (USA) or progettazione (Italy). Th is approach is introduced in opposition to traditional one which defi nes planning as a method of work which establishes in advance general and specifi c educational objectives that must be achieved. In emergent curriculum and progettazione instead of general and specifi c objectives teachers formulate hypotheses on a basis of their knowledge of children and their previous experience. Along with these hypothesis teachers formulate objectives which are fl exible and correspond to the needs and interests of their students. Children’s exploration is facilitated through short- and long-term projects in which working in groups, cooperation, observation and documentation are crucial elements.