Planowanie i polityka zatrudnienia w państwach socjalistycznych (ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem Polski)
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The article was presented as a paper to the European Population Conference 1987, Jyväskylä, Finland, June 11-16, 1987 (mimeographed conference proceedings in English). A special role of employment is connected with the economic reform being introduced in the socialist countries. In the 80's employment became a factor limiting production growth. In Poland, employment processes are affected, to a big extent, by the socio-economic crisis. New mechanisms of the national economy functioning are realized in autonomous enterprises. They concern the regulating of size and structure of employment and wage fund. The new policy has been presented in the article against the background of the analysis of labour resources. The data are for the years 1950-1985. The authoress points at impact of extensive factors in the post-war years and at necessity of utilizing intensive factors in the national economy, including employment. There are also discussed consequences of the decision about earlier-than-normal retirement (since 1975) and the right to child-care leaves and grants. This has resulted in substantial reserves of unutilized labour accompanied by a general labour deficit in the national economy. The article points at the necessity of introducing major changes in the employment policy with regard to the whole national economy and particular autonomous enterprises. Poland records zero growth of labour resources today. In this situation structural transformations, especially in employment, are indispensable. They may be different: horizontal, vertical, qualitative. So far successes In this sphere have been insignificant, and they do not guarantee a desirable increase of production and fuller utilization of labour resources. Further research in this field is necessary.