Widz teatralny - typologia odbiorców sztuki scenicznej i ich dyskursów
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The article concerns the reception of the performance and it attempts to describe the recipients of a play and their discourses. The empirical research on the audience of three plays: Tango by S. Mrożek, Pokojówki by J. Genet and Przemiana by F. Kafka, is the basis for theoretical considerations. Having ninety-five extensive interviews-conversations with the spectators, three major discourses were distinguished: the vital (connected with real life), the critical, and the vital combined with the critical. The first was subdivided into the naive discourse (aspirant), the narcissistic (egotist), and the amateurish (ignorant). The second comprises the integral discourse (statistical spectator), the admiring (theatre-goer) and the poetical (literary man); the third type of the discourse, also called the aesthetical, is represented by a spectator-critic. The analysis of the interviews indicated that the semiotic attitude, which is contrary to Jacobson s poetical function, is prevalent among the spectators. The overwhelming majority of the subjects (87,5%) followed the plot of the play and tried to apply it to reality. Only 12,5% of all spectators limited themselves to the syntactic analysis of the play, and to the description of its formal characteristics. Additionally, it followed that over a half - 61,4% of the average recipients of the performance could be classified among the paradigm of the reception marked by H. G. Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics (the vital discourse), and that one which derives from Kant (the critical discourse). Therefore, they represent a combination of the vital and the critical discourse, in other words, such a discourse, which not only takes into consideration the aspects concerning the contents, but also formal characteristics of the play.