Metoda badawcza Miltona Friedmana
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The following theses of the research method adopted by M. Friedman arouse major doubts: — falsification ot hypotheses constitutes the only tost of their truthfulness, — main role of the theory consists in formulating forecasts. The principle of falsification „through implications" means that realism of assumptions of theoretical hypotheses remains outside the framework of the verification procedure, which — taking into account practical difficulties in comparing forecasts and implications of hypotheses with the economic reality resulting from the very essence of economic sciences — causes that a danger arises of transforming a scientific theory into an unquestionable economic doctrine. In turn, stressing the exclusive forecasting function of science implies abandoning attempts at explicating the reality, which consequently causes that we tend to deal with analysis not of cause-effect relationships but rather correlations, that cannot provide a basis for understanding phenomena. The knowledge obtained in this way is of necessity of „temporary” character and it arouses only limited confidence. In the case of the economic theory, wo are usual ly dealing then with lack of substantiation ot macroeconomic theories by solid macroeconomic foundations. Friedman does not try to conceal relationships between methodological deliberations and his economic doctrine. The aim of his research method is to facilitate defence of the two crucial elements of the neoclassical analysis — the profit maximization concepL and the perfect competition concept. They are more sensitive of critique ensuing from their direct confrontation with the reality while, on the other hand, it is much more difficult to underming them „through implications.