Bariery w procesach transferu i absorpcji postępu technicznego w gospodarkach krajów rozwijających się
The article discusses two groups of barriers encountered by economies of the developing countries in processes of technical progress transfer and absorption i.e. brain dram and export as well as import restrictions. Migration of highly qualified manpower from the developing countries to the developed capitalist countries represents a vital factor hampering and impeding socio-economic development in those countries. Main suppliers of highly qualified cadres to the developed countries are the developing countries of Asia with the United States being one of destinations for their emigrants. The causes of migration must be sought both in the policy pursued in this sphere by the developed capitalist countries and in not fully effective performance of the Third World countries. Export and import restrictions are imposed on the developing countries while concluding transactions on purchases of new technologies and know-how by them. The world market of new technologies is controlled, to a vast extent, by highly developed capitalist countries while the main suppliers of new technologies from these countries are big multinational corporations. As a rule, the developing countries do not have adequate knowledge about this market, which does not allow them to choose technologies that might be suitable for them or negotiate the most favorable terms of purchasing these technologies. The restrictions encountered by the developing countries in the process of technology transfer for several years now are countered by specific measures undertaken by these countries and by the United Nations Organization. The UNCTAD Secretariat elaborated a draft of the international Technology Transfer Code in 1975, which envisages an improvement in the terms on which new technologies are to be purchased by the developing countries This drat has not been approved, however, by the main exporters of technologies i.e. by the developed countries, which makes it impossible to introduce the Code into practice. Consequently, in the seventies some countries of the Third World began to introduce a legal regulation of technology import on an individual basis eliminating in this way, at least in part, the unfavorable or detrimental for their economies clauses in agreements on import of technologies. These processes producing advantageous results were initiated only in a small group of the economically stronger countries of the Third World, and as a result the issue of restrictions in import of new technologies continues to be faced by majority of the developing countries.