The paper employs the methodological framework of the second generation cognitive linguistics, which emphasizes the role of metaphor and metonymy in human conceptual system and language [Lakoff, Johnson 1999]. The framework is used in the analysis of selected Polish and Slovakian Tatra oronyms. Historical motivation for the emergence of the names in question is provided. The results of the analysis clearly point out to dominance of image metaphors and metonymies in the structure of the selected names. Problems related to categorisation of oronyms are also discussed.