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The Bulletin of the Section of Logic (BSL) is a quarterly peer-reviewed journal published with support of the University of Lodz. Its aim is to act as a forum for timely wide dissemination of novel, significant results in logic through rapid publication of papers not exceding 18 pages. The BSL invites especially the contributions dealing directly with logical calculi, their methodology, application and algebraic interpretations.

Papers may be submitted to the Editor-in-Chief or to any of the Collecting Editors.

BRIEF HISTORY In 1972: Ryszard Wójcicki, Head of the Section of Logic of the Polish Academy of Sciences, at that time based in Wrocław, launches the newsletter-journal designed for the exchange of scientific results among members of the Section with their national and international partners and cooperators. Jan Zygmunt was the editor of the first six issues of the journal. 1975: Grzegorz Malinowski takes on the responsibility of the Managing Editor. 1992: The Department of Logic of Łódź University, takes over publication from the Polish Academy of Sciences and changes its publication policy into a regular peer-reviewed journal. Grzegorz Malinowski becomes Editor-in-Chief. 2012: To continue Polish logical tradition the Editors decided retain the name of the journal unchanged.

Punktacja MNiSW: 20 pkt. (2019)
Punktacja MNiSW: 20 pkt. (2021)
Dyscyplina wg MNiSW: filozofia; informatyka techniczna i telekomunikacja; matematyka

Wydawca: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego
ISSN 0138-0680 (print)
ISSN 2449-836X (online)
www: Bulletin of the Section of Logic

### Recent Submissions

• #### Neighbourhood Semantics for Graded Modal Logic ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2021-07-14)
We introduce a class of neighbourhood frames for graded modal logic embedding Kripke frames into neighbourhood frames. This class of neighbourhood frames is shown to be first-order definable but not modally definable. We ...
• #### A General Model of Neutrosophic Ideals in BCK/BCI-algebras Based on Neutrosophic Points ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2020-08-15)
More general form of (∈, ∈ ∨q)-neutrosophic ideal is introduced, and their properties are investigated. Relations between (∈, ∈)-neutrosophic ideal and (∈, ∈ ∨q(kT ,kI ,kF ))-neutrosophic ideal are discussed. Characterizations ...
• #### Falling Shadow Theory with Applications in Hoops ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2021-01-20)
The falling shadow theory is applied to subhoops and filters in hoops. The notions of falling fuzzy subhoops and falling fuzzy filters in hoops are introduced, and several properties are investigated. Relationship between ...
• #### Tense Operators on BL-algebras and Their Applications ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2021-05-28)
In this paper, the notions of tense operators and tense filters in $$BL$$-algebras are introduced and several characterizations of them are obtained. Also, the relation among tense $$BL$$-algebras, tense $$MV$$-algebras ...
• #### A Note on Gödel-Dummet Logic LC ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2021-07-01)
• #### Omitting Types in Fragments and Extensions of First Order Logic ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2021-05-28)
Fix $$2 < n < \omega$$. Let $$L_n$$ denote first order logic restricted to the first n variables. Using the machinery of algebraic logic, positive and negative results on omitting types are obtained for $$L_n$$ and for ...
• #### Extended MR with Nesting of Predicate Expressions as a Basic Logic for Social Phenomena ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2021-06-30)
In this article, we present the positional logic that is suitable for the formalization of reasoning about social phenomena. It is the effect of extending the Minimal Realisation (MR) logic with new expressions. These ...
• #### Common Knowledge, Common Attitudes and Social Reasoning ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2021-06-30)
For as long as there have been theories about common knowledge, they have been exposed to a certain amount of skepticism. Recent more sophisticated arguments question whether agents can acquire common attitudes and whether ...
• #### Tableau Systems for Epistemic Positional Logics ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2021-06-30)
The goal of the article is twofold. The first one is to provide logics based on positional semantics which will be suitable for the analysis of epistemic modalities such as ‘agent ... knows/beliefs that ...’. The second ...
• #### The Good, the Bad and the Right: Formal Reductions among Deontic Concepts ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2021-06-30)
The present article provides a taxonomic analysis of bimodal logics of normative ideality and normative awfulness, two notions whose meaning is here explained in terms of the moral values pursued by a given community. ...
• #### Towards a Logic of Value and Disagreement via Imprecise Measures ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2021-06-30)
After putting forward a formal account of value disagreement via imprecise measures, I develop a logic of value attribution and of (dis)agreement based on (exact) truthmaker semantics.
• #### Reasoning about Social Phenomena ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2021-06-30)
• #### What Is the Sense in Logic and Philosophy of Language ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2020-06-30)
In the paper, various notions of the logical semiotic sense of linguistic expressions – namely, syntactic and semantic, intensional and extensional – are considered and formalised on the basis of a formal-logical conception ...
• #### Compounding Objects ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2020-06-30)
We prove a characterization theorem for filters, proper filters and ultrafilters which is a kind of converse of Łoś's theorem. It is more natural than the usual intuition of these terms as large sets of coordinates, which ...
• #### Cantor on Infinitesimals. Historical and Modern Perspective ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2020-06-30)
In his 1887's Mitteilungen zur Lehre von Transfiniten, Cantor seeks to prove inconsistency of infinitesimals. We provide a detailed analysis of his argument from both historical and mathematical perspective. We show that ...
• #### Computer-supported Analysis of Positive Properties, Ultrafilters and Modal Collapse in Variants of Gödel's Ontological Argument ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2020-06-30)
Three variants of Kurt Gödel's ontological argument, proposed by Dana Scott, C. Anthony Anderson and Melvin Fitting, are encoded and rigorously assessed on the computer. In contrast to Scott's version of Gödel's argument ...
• #### Completeness, Categoricity and Imaginary Numbers: The Debate on Husserl ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2020-06-30)
Husserl's two notions of "definiteness" enabled him to clarify the problem of imaginary numbers. The exact meaning of these notions is a topic of much controversy. A "definite" axiom system has been interpreted as a ...
• #### Formal Methods and Science in Philosophy: Introduction to the Special Issue ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2020-06-30)
Introduction to the Special Issue.
• #### Four-valued expansions of Dunn-Belnap's logic (I): Basic characterizations ﻿

(Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2020-12-30)
Basic results of the paper are that any four-valued expansion L4 of Dunn-Belnap's logic DB4 is de_ned by a unique (up to isomorphism) conjunctive matrix ℳ4 with exactly two distinguished values over an expansion 4 of a De ...