Współczesne tendencje na rynku największych systemów hotelowych na świecie
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Majority of world’s hotels belong to several dozen hotel chains comprising nearly the whole globe. Their expansion is the result of a phase the hotel industry went through, in which further development is possible not only by consolidation of hotels working on their own so far, but also by capturing new markets. Despite the fact that the beginnings of many hotel chains date back to the period between two World Wars or just after the year 1945, the real boom started in the 50-ties and the 60-ties. The dynamic development of tourism resulted not only in a quick development of the world hotel industry but also in a tendency to create syndicates gathering independent hotels which was to help lead mutual merchendising campaign, reduce costs by applying the same technologies and organisational solutions, introduce a mutual system of reservations, mutual negotiating policies with travel agencies. At the same time owners of highly profitable hotels started to invest their money in consecutive hotel properties, which had its consequences in appearing bigger chains of hotels controlled by the same board. Both mentioned tendencies gave birth to great hotel chains appearing on the world’s touristic market which beginning from the 70-ties dominated the market of hotel services. For a long time American Holiday Inn, Inc. (which has changed its name several times) and Best Western, Inc. had been the biggest hotel chains. The first significant changes in the top world’s hotels were observed only at the beginnings of the 90-ties when in this group of the biggest hotel chains new systems, which were created as a result of a fussion of so far independent chains, appeared (Choice Hotels international and Hospitality Franchise Systems). At the same time, the phenomenon of taking over some chains by others usually bigger was increasing (Accor SA was created in this way). The 90-ties were the years of crisis for some chains (e.g. Club Mediterranee SA, Forte Hotels Plc.), which made some hotel systems limit their services or reorganise their work. The year 1997 can be considered as the beginning of the new era in the development of hotels when great enterprises specialising so far in real estate investment and hotel management entered the market. One of them – Starwood Lodging Trust in winter 1997 \ 1998 took over chains of ITT Sheraton Corp. and Westin Hotels & Resorts. Due to these changes newly created Starwood Hotels Resorts \ Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc. became the seventh among the biggest hotel systems of the world. Another huge enterprise specialising in real estate investment which in 1997 appeared among the hotel tycoons was Patriot American Hospitality Corp. occupying the 12th position. The third chain which took its position (16th place) among the biggest hotel systems was Interstate Hotels Corp. Other changes which occured in 1997 in the group of the biggest hotel systems were also significant. One of them was (in December 1997) a fusion of Promus Corp. system with Doubletree Hotels Corp. Another significant change was purchasing Inter-Continental Hotels & Resorts chain by the British Bass Plc. consortium from the Japanese Seibu Saison capital group.
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