Kaukaz w „dyplomacji” księcia Adama Jerzego Czartoryskiego w okresie kryzysu wschodniego (1832-1840)
Żurawski vel Grajewski, Radosław
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Prince Adam George Czartoryski started to develop the activity of his "diplomacy" towards Caucasian question in the early years of his exile. Till 1834 that region was presented in Czartoryski' s political camp informative action in England and France mainly as a territory where many Poles - former soldiers of Polish army of the November uprising (1830-1831) - had been forcibly sent by Russian authorities. Their military service in the ranks of Russian army was the form of persecution, and punishment imposed on them after the collapse of the Polish uprising. Presence of more than 10 000 Poles in the Russian Caucasus army and many information about the numerous desertions of these soldiers which soon reached Western Europe, as well as the guerilla war waged against Russia mainly by Chechen and Circessians mountaineers turned the attention of Prince Czartoryski on the Caucasian question. The Eastern Crisis connected with the conflict in Ottoman Empire between sultan Mahmud II and Pasha of Egypt Muhammad Ali produced a serious political tension in Russian-British relations especially after the treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi. That situation offered to the Czartoryski's "diplomacy" a possibility of developing its activity in Great Britain, unofficially supported by Foreign Office. Lord Henry Palmerston - British Foreign Secretary used Polish propaganda in favour of the fight of Caucasian mountaineers as a political tool against Russian diplomacy in the quarrel over Turko-Egyptian conflict. The Poles in collaboration with David Urquhart and some English Circessophiles managed to publish "The Portfolio" paper that contained a series of Russian secret diplomatic correspondence captured by insurgents in Warsaw in 1830, and many articles against Russian conquests in Caucasus. The Poles and group of Urquhart organized famous "Vixen" expedition to Circessia to provoke even more tension in English-Russian relations and if possible to give the reason for war. Still they failed in their attempts to obtain more effective support from Foreign Office for the organization of Polish detachments created with the deserters from Russian army to fight as the allied troops on the side of Ciressians and Chechens against Russians. The Russian-British agreement and collaboration concerning the Turco-Egyptian crisis in 1840 temporary ended the hopes of Prince Czartoryski for anti Russian collaboration with Foreign Office.