Spisy ludności na ziemiach polskich w latach 1789-1939
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Censuses are the most important source of statistic information about people. The first ones were led in ancient Egypt. In ancient Rome regular censuses took place and they were just called censuses at that time. The first national censuses in Poland appeared in the second half of the 18th century. It depended on the growth of interest concerning population problems in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1777 there was a city census, which was repeated several times later. In 1787 there was a one-day census in Warsaw. There was the first country census while the nobles’ Polish Republic was on the decline. It was voted by The Four Years’ Seymon the 22nd.06.1789. It was carried in the years 1789-1790. Although the census did not include any privilegedstates, it became a base for estimating of population at the final period ofThe Polish Republic. It was a sumaric census that presented the population amount in cities which were in the area of The Polish Republic at that time. In 1790 there was a personal census run there too. Other general censuses took place in The Grand Duchy of Warsaw in 1808 and in 1810. The first one has lasted for a year. It was a sumaric census and it presented data on population amount of the country, its departments and administrative districts, social and professional structure of the society, its belief. It also shown variety of age, sex and marital status of the inhabitans. Unfortunately the census in 1808 did not include about 1/3 of the population in The Grand Duchy of Warsaw. Two years ago there was another census there. Probably it was legally based on the Decree from 25th.05.1809, which considered military fee imposed on the society. It began at the end of 1809 in The Grand Duchy of Warsaw in order to contain the territory incorporated in 1809. It was in the first half of 1810. The census was continued in 1811. From a technical point of view it was a better census than the one in 1808. The decree on population registers was issued in the 18th.01.1810. It was the effect of Napoleonic Code wchich was introduced to the country at that time. They were run right from the start of The Grand Duchy of Warsaw. In 1897 there was the first general census both in The Russian Empire and in The Grand Duchy of Warsaw. It was the only one census that was led in Russia then. It gave information on state and population structure of Polish land gained by The Russian Empire. On the territory taken by Austria, the first censuses were led at the beginning of the 19th century. In 1808 there was a military census in Galicia. It was legally based on the patent of the emperor Francis II (25th.10.1804) on military censuses of population in Austria. The officialcounting was supposed to be done in 1805. But because of the war against France it was delayed up to 1808. Due to it lots of facts on the state of population in eastern and western Galicia were gained. In the second half of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century there were general censuses in the area of Hapsburg monarchy. They were made in the years 1857, 1869, 1880, 1890, 1900 and 1910. Censuses in Prussia have been repeated every three years since 1816. The first general census was made in Prussia in 1840. It is necessarily to say that a registry of population in Prussia in the first half of the 19th century was criticallyjudged by then statisticians. It did not include all the people who lived in Prussia at that time. After the uniflcation of Germany, censuses have been made every five years since 1871. The national statistics of population on Polish territory was not run correctly while the annexation. Therefore the records do not present the real population status there, especially when we mean Russian annexation. The first census in the reborn Polish Republic was made on the 30th.09.1921. The census did not include the area which was fmaly incorporated to Poland after 1921 (Upper Silesia and Middle Lithuania).The census also concerned flats, houses, animals, farms, garden trucks and forests. The second census was organised on the 9th.12.1931. The subject of which was the same as the previous one. It was the last census in The Second Polish Republic.