Główne typy semantyczne w toponimli australijskiej
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The author presentes here the specific character of Australian onoma stics from the semantic point of view. Australian onomatology is still a live process, a process in statu nascendi (excluding Aboriginal toponymies). The material analysed in the paper has been selected from various oncoastic works, indexes of topographic names, Australian Encyclopaedia and many maga zine articles. The paper presents the development of semantic types and gives many examples of toponyms, sometimes hydronyms within the boundaries of a given state. There is a large portion of commemorative names after famous discoverers, explorers and travellers. Many names commemorate ruling royal families. Others originated from the names of governors and high-rank officials, names of national heroes, captains and officers of ships, secretaries of state, surgeons, bishops, first settlers and even fiction characters. Many names had been borrowed from places on other continents. Local names of apellative stems are not so numerously represented as the names discussed. There are also many Aboriginal names which are not etymologically clear. They are very often concurrent with European names. There are also a number of Anglo-Aboriginal hybrids.