This paper attempts to identify the key parameters and sources of efficiency Polish biotechnology companies. As more than 90% of them are small and medium-sized the base for analysis is profile characterizing such organizations. In the study was applied SME profile on the profile of biotechnology firm. An overview of these two blocks of information was gave list of main successes and problems sources of biotechnology companies and let to prepare resulting conclusions. To verify the literature analysis by empirical data were described two cases of typical small biotech firm.