The purpose of this article is to identify disparities in the use of knowledge in socio-economic life in the Polish provinces. The study was conducted using a taxonomic measure of development (one of the tools of multidimensional comparative analysis). Classification of provinces was constructed on the basis of KEI (Knowledge Economy Index) and KI (Knowledge Index) which are used by the World Bank in Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM). The division into four pillars (i.e. The Economic Incentive and Institutional Regime, The Innovation System, Education and Human Resources, Information and Communication Technology) attempts to explain the relationship between the factors of development.