Demographic Situation In Poland After 1990
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At the turn of the century, Poland witnessed an important change in the distribution of the population, i.e. concentration of the population in metropolitan areas, movements from central cities to surrounding areas (suburbs) and depopulation of peripheral areas. Within the analysed period, there has been a significant outflow of the Polish population abroad, particularly from the eastern part of the country and from Opolskie region. Additionally, low total fertility rate influenced low natural increase, except suburbs where a rise in the natural increase rate was recorded. The changes to migration intensity and directions and of the diversification of natural increase along with passing through the population pyramid consecutive generations of baby boomers and people born in demographic lows result in more rapid ageing of areas which until recently were considered as demographically young (i.e. northern and western Poland) and urban areas. In the coming decades, the on-going demographic processes will result in even greater spatial polarisation between metropolitan and peripheral areas. If continued, the depopulation tendency resulting from low natural increase caused by low fertility and increasingly delayed time of establishing a family as well as emigration of young people will lead to further deepening of demographic ageing as a result of a drop in the percentage of pre-working age population, diminished work resources and increased share of re tired people. Therefore, it is important to undertake certain population policy actions to strengthen the elements of pro-family policy, develop social policy targeted at older people and initiatives aimed at increasing economic activity particularly of people age 50+ (Sytuacja demograficzna Polski 2012). The main assumptions of population policy-marking directions for initiatives aimed at achieving sustainable socio-economic development were developed by the Government Population Council and adopted during the 2 nd Demo graphic Congress in 2012 and their implementation will depend on the country’s economic situation.
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