Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorMarkowska, Małgorzata
dc.contributor.authorSokołowski, Andrzej
dc.description.abstractThe paper proposes methods that can be used to evaluate the changes in one year of any measurable phenomenon based on how it performed in previous years. The following economic sections are considered: Agriculture, forestry and fishing/Industry/Construction/Wholesale and retail trade, transport, accommodation and food services/Information and communication/Financial and insurance activities/Real estate activities/Professional, scientific and technical activities, including administrative and support services/Public administration, defence, education, human health and social work/Arts, entertainment and recreation; other service activities; activities of household and extra‑territorial organisations and bodies. The paper proposes a new method – called The Triple 2 Rule – to identify changes in employment time series. Trends and autoregressive models are estimated for the period 2008–2019, and 2020 forecasts are calculated. The difference between the forecasted and observed values for 2020 is treated as a measure of the impact of COVID–19. Dynamic cluster analysis based on 2008–2020 data is the second approach. The characteristics and changes in the composition of dynamic clusters give a picture of the impact of 2020. These changes can be considered to have been caused – at least partially – by the COVID–19 pandemic.en
dc.description.abstractCelem artykułu jest zaproponowanie i zastosowanie metod, które można wykorzystać do oceny zmian w ciągu jednego roku dowolnego mierzalnego zjawiska z punktu widzenia tego, w jaki sposób podążają one za schematem procesu obserwowanego w latach poprzednich. Badania przeprowadzono dla zatrudnienia ogółem oraz zatrudnienia w następujących sekcjach: Rolnictwo, leśnictwo i rybołówstwo; Przemysł; Budownictwo; Handel hurtowy i detaliczny, transport, usługi hotelowe i restauracyjne; Informacja i komunikacja; Działalność finansowa i ubezpieczeniowa; Nieruchomości; Działalność naukowa, fachowa i techniczna, usługi administracyjne i pomocnicze; Administracja publiczna, obrona narodowa, edukacja, ochrona zdrowia i opieka społeczna; Sztuka, rozrywka, rekreacja, inne usługi, działalność gospodarstw domowych i organizacji pozarządowych. Zastosowano dwa podejścia metodologiczne. W ramach pierwszego oszacowano modele trendu i autoregresji na podstawie danych z lat 2008–2019 oraz wyznaczono prognozy na rok 2020. Następnie porównano je z wartościami rzeczywistymi w roku 2020. Zaproponowano tzw. Regułę trzech dwójek. Drugie podejście to dynamiczna analiza skupień. Zmiany w składzie wyodrębnionych grup pozwoliły na ocenę wpływu pandemii COVID 19 na stopy zatrudnienia w roku
dc.publisherWydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiegopl
dc.relation.ispartofseriesComparative Economic Research. Central and Eastern Europe;1pl
dc.subjectEuropean Union countriesen
dc.subjectdynamic cluster analysisen
dc.subjecttriple 2 ruleen
dc.subjectpaństwa Unii Europejskiejpl
dc.subjectdynamiczna analiza skupieńpl
dc.subjectreguła trzech dwójekpl
dc.titleThe Impact of COVID–19 on the Level and Structure of Employment in European Union Countriesen
dc.title.alternativeWpływ pandemii COVID–19 na poziom i strukturę zatrudnienia w krajach Unii Europejskiejpl
dc.contributor.authorAffiliationMarkowska, Małgorzata - Associate Professor, Wrocław University of Economics and Business, Wrocław, Polanden
dc.contributor.authorAffiliationSokołowski, Andrzej - Professor, Collegium Humanum – Warsaw Management University, Polanden
dc.referencesBeland, L.‑P., Fakorede, O., Mikola, D. (2020), Short‑Term Effect of COVID–19 on Self‑Employed Workers in Canada, “Canadian Public Policy”, 46 (1), pp. 66–81,
dc.referencesBiwolé, V.O. (2022), Impact de la Covid–19 sur l’emploi au Cameroun. Résultats d’une étude empirique, “Mondes en développement”, 4 (196), pp. 27–47,
dc.referencesBorland, J. (2020a), COVID and the Australian labour market: The immediate impact, Labour Market Snapshot #56, March, (accessed: 20.05.2022).en
dc.referencesBorland, J. (2020b), Female and male employment during recessions in Australia, Labour Market Snapshot #62; June (22), (accessed: 20.05.2022).en
dc.referencesCardoso, M., Malloy, B. (2021), Impact of the First Wave of the COVID–19 Pandemic on Trade between Canada and the United States, “Canadian Public Policy”, 47 (4), pp. 554–572,
dc.referencesChi‑Wei, S., Ke, D., Ullah, S., Andlib, Z. (2021), COVID–19 pandemic and unemployment dynamics in European economies, “Economic Research‑Ekonomska Istraživanja”, pp. 1–13,
dc.referencesDoucet, A., Mathieu, S., McKay, L. (2020), Reconceptualizing Parental Leave Benefits in COVID–19 Canada: From Employment Policy to Care and Social Protection Policy, “Canadian Public Policy”, 46 (3), pp. 272–286,
dc.referencesEurostat (n.d.), Important information concerning the extraction of Eurostat data, (accessed: 20.04.2022).en
dc.referencesFukai, T., Ichimura, H., Kawata, K. (2021), Describing the impacts of COVID–19 on the labor market in Japan until June 2020, “The Japanese Economic Review”, 72 (3), pp. 439–470,‑zen
dc.referencesFuller, S., Qian, Y. (2021), Covid–19 and The Gender Gap in Employment Among Parents of Young Children in Canada, “Gender & Society”, 35 (2), pp. 206–217,
dc.referencesHossain, S. (2021), Impacts of Covid–19 on Bangladesh Economy: is the Post Covid–19 Bangladesh Economy Risky?, “Journal of European Economy”, 20 (1), pp. 42–68,
dc.referencesILO (2020), Covid 19 and the World of Work: Impact and Policy Responses, Monitor 1st Edition, Geneva.en
dc.referencesKalkavan, H., Baş, H., Ersin, İ., Eti, S., Yüksel, S. (2021), Defining Appropriate Government Strategies to Reduce Unemployment During COVID–19 Pandemics, [in:] H. Dincer, S. Yüksel (eds.), Management Strategies to Survive in a Competitive Environment. Contributions to Management Science, Springer, Cham, pp. 155–172,
dc.referencesKoebel, K., Pohler, D. (2020), Labor Markets in Crisis: The Double Liability of Low‐Wage Work During COVID‐19, “Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society”, 59 (4), pp. 503–531,
dc.referencesLamb, D., Gomez, R., Moghaddas, M. (2021), Unions and hazard pay for COVID‐19: Evidence from the Canadian Labour Force Survey, “British Journal of Industrial Relations”, 60 (3), pp. 606–634,
dc.referencesLambert, L. (2020), Real Unemployment and the US has now Lost 26.5 million Jobs, “Fortune”, 23 April.en
dc.referencesLe, L.H.V., Huynh, T.L.D., Weber, B.S., Nguyen, B.K.Q. (2021), Different firm responses to the COVID–19 pandemic shocks: machine‑learning evidence on the Vietnamese labor market, “International Journal of Emerging Markets”
dc.referencesLewandowski, P. (2020), Occupational Exposure to Contagion and the Spread of COVID–19 in Europe, “IZA Discussion Paper”, 13227, Institute of Labor Economics, Bonn.en
dc.referencesLim, G., Nguyen, V., Robinson, T., Tsiaplias, S., Wang, J. (2021), The Australian Economy in 2020–21 The COVID‐19 Pandemic and Prospects for Economic Recovery, “Australian Economic Review”, 54 (1), pp. 5–18,
dc.referencesLloyd, P., Dixon, R. (2021), Modelling the Spread of the Coronavirus: A View from Economics, “Australian Economic Review”, 54 (1), pp. 36–56,
dc.referencesMaital, S., Barzani, E. (2020), The Global Economic Impact of COVID–19: A Summary of Research, Samuel Neaman Institute for National Policy Research, Haifa.en
dc.referencesMarkowska, M. (2012), Dynamiczna taksonomia innowacyjności regionów, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu, Wrocław.en
dc.referencesMayhew, K., Anand, P. (2020), COVID–19 and the UK labour market, “Oxford Review of Economic Policy”, 36 (1), pp. 215–224,
dc.referencesOECD (2020), Coronavirus: The World Economy at Risk, OECD Economic Outlook, Interim Report March, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris.en
dc.referencesQian, Y., Fuller, S. (2020), COVID–19 and the Gender Employment Gap among Parents of Young Children, “Canadian Public Policy”, 46 (2), pp. 89–101,
dc.referencesRadulescu, C.V., Ladaru, G.‑R., Burlacu, S., Constantin, F., Ioanăș, C., Petre, I .L. (2021), Impact of the COVID–19 Pandemic on the Romanian Labor Market, “Sustainability”, 13 (1), 271,
dc.referencesRadzi, A.R., Rahman, R.A., Almutairi, S. (2022), Modeling COVID–19 Impacts and Response Strategies in the Construction Industry: PLS–SEM Approach, “International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health”, 19 (9), 5326,
dc.referencesRakha, A., Hettiarachchi, H., Rady, D., Gaber, M.G., Rakha, E., Abdelsamea, M.M. (2021), Predicting the Economic Impact of the COVID–19 Pandemic in the United Kingdom Using Time‑Series Mining, “Economies”, 9 (4), 137,
dc.referencesRami, K.I., Wahba, A. (2021), Can you imagine Bethlehem without tourism: the impacts of Covid–19 on Bethlehem, Palestine, “Current Issues in Tourism”, 24 (24), pp. 3535–3551,
dc.referencesRodríguez‑López, A.M., Rubio‑Valdehita, S., Díaz‑Ramiro, E.M. (2021), Influence of the CoViD–19 Pandemic on Mental Workload and Burnout of Fashion Retailing Workers in Spain, “International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health”, 18 (3), 983,
dc.referencesRojas, F.L., Jiang, X., Montenovo, L., Simon, K.I., Weinberg, B.A., Wing, C. (2020), Is the Cure Worse than the Problem Itself? Immediate Labor Market Effects of COVID–19 Case Rates and School Closures in the US. Technical Report, “NBER Working Paper Series”, 27127, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge,
dc.referencesRosak‑Szyrocka, J., Abbas, A., Akhtar, H., Refugio, C. (2021), Employment and Labour Market Impact of COVID–19 Crisis – Part 1 – Analysis in Poland, “System Safety: Human – Technical Facility – Environment”, 3 (1), pp. 108–115,
dc.referencesRoychowdhury, A., Bose, M., De Roy, S. (2022), The great Indian lockdown 1.0: exploring the labour market dynamics, “Canadian Journal of Development Studies”, 69, pp. 1–25,
dc.referencesRubio‑Valdehita, S., Rodríguez‑López, A.M., Marín, A. (2021), Concern about the Effects of the Pandemic Caused by COVID–19 in the Retail Sector in Spain. Differences between Men and Women, The 3rd International Electronic Conference on Environmental Research and Public Health – Public Health Issues in the Context of the COVID–19 Pandemic, 9,
dc.referencesShishkina, N.V., Mamistova, E.A., Sabetova, T.V. (2021), Mutual effect of labour market development and COVID–19 pandemic progression, “Proceedings of the Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies”, 83 (1), pp. 421–428,
dc.referencesSlade, M.E. (2022), Many losers and a few winners: The impact of COVID‐19 on Canadian industries and regions, “Canadian Journal of Economics”, 55 (1), pp. 282–307,
dc.referencesSokołowski, A. (1982), O zagadnieniach taksonomicznych (Clustering Problems), “Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Ekonomicznej w Krakowie”, 165, pp. 65–72.en
dc.referencesSvabova, L., Gabrikova, B. (2021), The rise in youth employment? Impact evaluation of COVID–19 consequences, “Journal of Eastern European and Central Asian Research (JEECAR)”, 8 (4), pp. 511–526,
dc.referencesWalkowiak, E. (2021), JobKeeper: The Australian Short‐Time Work Program, “Australian Journal of Public Administration”, 80 (4), pp. 1046–1053,
dc.referencesWard, J.H. (1963), Hierarchical grouping to optimize an objective function, “Journal of the American Statistical Association”, 58 (301), pp. 236–244,
dc.contributor.authorEmailMarkowska, Małgorzata -
dc.contributor.authorEmailSokołowski, Andrzej -

Files in this item


This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as