Jews have been present in Poland for so many centuries that it renders the country quite exceptional on a global scale. Treated inhumanely in Western Europe, they found here a safe haven and good career prospects. Known for their entrepreneurship, they played a major role in the economic history of Poland, and especially in the development of trade, craftsmanship and finance. The literature of the subject, however, lacks discerning and substantial publications to justify the statement. The available analyses are often superficial, while the conclusions turn out to be contradictory, which may be partially excused by the lack of appropriate reference materials and statistical data.