Przestępczość w Tomaszowie Mazowieckim w latach 2002-2005
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The main aim of this article is to present the spatial diversity of criminal acts and offences in Tomaszów Mazowiecki. The analysis was preceded by the characteristic of spatial and organizational structure of institutions combating and preventing the crime, i.e. Police and Municipal Police. The first Police Station in Tomaszów Mazowiecki was established in 1919. The headquarters of the Station (and then Department) was changed several times, until 1957, when it moved to St Antoni Street 41. Currently the new building of the Department is under construction (on Lange Street). Until 1995 the city space of Tomaszów Mazowiecki was divided into two beats, which in turn was divided into 14 precincts. The headquarters of both beats is District Police Department. The city is served by 200 policemen, according to the state from 2005, but actually it’s lower because of vacant posts. The Municipal Police in Tomaszów Mazowiecki was established in 1992 and now its headquarters is situated on P.O.W. Street 10/16. The Municipal Police can realize its tasks acting independently in the range defined by the City Mayor and Commanding Officer of Municipal Police, but also should cooperate with the Police and other services acting ‘for improving the security and public order, ecology, nature preservation, animal care’. In 2002-2005 in Tomaszów Mazowiecki the downward trend of crime number were noted. During this period 9418 crimes (and 3443 offenses) were recorded on the city area. Therefore on average 2354 crimes (and 861 offences) took place in the city. Calculating it per 10 000 inhabitants, we obtain the index 347,1. This value suggests that the crime level in Tomaszów Mazowiecki is lower than in big cities in Poland. The index is also lower than the index for all country (378,1 in the period of 2002-2004). Nevertheless, in so far as the population of Tomaszów Mazowiecki constitutes about 55,3% of Tomaszowski District, there were recorded 74% of crimes and 64% of offences committed in all District. Taking into consideration individual categories of all crimes committed in the period of 2002-2005, it appears that the most often occurs burglaries (24% of total crime number), robberies (10,2%) and damages to properties (9,4%). Banditries constituted 2,4% of all crimes committed in the period of 2002-2005. Remaining categories, as: murders, affrays and batteries, bodily injuries, lascivious acts and rapes, maintained on the level of 3,2% of all crimes. From among total offences, the most popular were those from the article 119 of Offence Code (deforcement) and article 124 of Offense Code (damage to someone else’s property). The number of crimes committed in Tomaszów Mazowiecki in the period of 2002- 2005 shows clear spatial diversity, with observable concentration of the phenomenon in central precincts of the city (fig. 2). In case of crimes some long standing regularities concerning their daily and weekly schedule can be observed. As it shows the figure 3, days most threatened of crime are Fridays and Saturdays. Inhabitants of Tomaszów can feel more secure on Mondays and Sundays, especially in the morning (during the first shift). Generally during all week, the most safe are mornings. More crimes occurs in the afternoon, and the most in the evening or by night. In Tomaszów Mazowiecki and its surroundings during the third shift especially damages to properties, burglaries and car robberies occur. Another time is chosen by offenders of banditries, bodily injuries and robberies of bikes and motorcycles (afternoons), and especially pickpockets (mornings). In Tomaszów Mazowiecki in 1998 the program ‘Safe City’ was introduced. Originally it’s aim is improving general security in the city. In the range of crime menace, which is the subject of this work, the most important tasks are to be concentrated on: limitation of robberies and burglaries, stopping the increase of car crimes, reducing the number of crimes against the life and health; improvement inhabitants’ sense of security. The important is that as executors of those tasks were engaged not only Police and Municipal Police officers, but also representatives of security agencies, City Hall, insurance agencies, schools and housing co-operatives. It was rightly assumed that the success of program realization can be brought by developing the cooperation between different institutions and inhabitants.Głównym celem artykułu jest przedstawienie zróżnicowania przestrzennego czynów przestępczych i wykroczeń na obszarze Tomaszowa Mazowieckiego. Analiza ta poprzedzona została charakterystyką struktury przestrzennej i organizacyjnej instytucji zajmujących się zwalczaniem i przeciwdziałaniem przestępczości, tj. Policji i Straży Miejskiej. Omówiono także główne cele i zadania Programu „Bezpieczne Miasto”.