Zasoby mieszkaniowe Łodzi: rozwój, struktura przedmiotowa i przestrzenna
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W artykule przedstawiono rozwój oraz strukturę przedmiotową i przestrzenną zasobów mieszkaniowych Łodzi, z uwzględnieniem kompleksowej oceny i typologii standardu mieszkaniowego jednostek urbanistycznych.The article is about the development, structure and spatial distribution of the housing resources in Łódź with regard to evaluation and spatial typology of habitation standard. It was found that from the beginning of the industrialisation period till the present time a continuous development of housing construction led to a steady increase in housing resources in Łódź. It resulted from relatively small losses in housing as well as from a significant incorporation of adjacent urbanised areas into the city. In 1921-1996 period witnessed a threefold increase in the number of housing units in the city (from 108.2 to 325.6 thousand). This growth was coupled with a gradual modernisation of habitation. The 1995 micro-census data show an overwhelming domination o f co-operative housing (43.7% of all flats). The socioeconomic transformation period saw a substantial increase in private housing with a decrease of municipal (state-owned) resources. The hosing co-operatives in Łódź - disintegrated in the 1990s - differ significantly as to the volume, age and standard of their housing resources. As a rule the older co-operatives are of lower standard than the new ones. Łódź has also ample resources of municipal housing (135.3 thousand), mainly of advanced age, low standard and in need of repair. The spatial distribution of buildings within the city is bimodal: two main areas of concentration occur in northern inner city and southern-central Bałuty as well as in southerncentral peripheries. The distribution of housing units (apartments) is quite different: these are concentrated in the inner city and in post-war housing estates located in the intermediate zone. In accordance with general trends, the housing in Łódź is optimally developed in the intermediate zone where the post-war single- and multi-family structures are prevailing. The differentiation of housing standard has a concentric-zonal configuration. Generally, the standard tends to grow toward peripheries. Typology of districts in Łódź with regard to 11 characteristics of housing standard was carried out by the J. H. Ward’s clustering method. It resulted in the distiction of 7 types of districts.