Zwierzę jako problem myśli antropologicznej. (Księga Psalmów i Księga Przysłów w Biblii Jakuba Wujka)
This article points to stylistic and cognitive function of animals in two educational books of the Old Testament. This work illustrates great deals of symbols, metaphors, comparisons and animal allegory presented in the Book of Psalms and The Book of Proverbs in Jakub Wujek translation. The research is based on the Bible edition from 1599. A human being, when describing himself, appeals to external reality. In the world of faun he looks for some parallels with his experience, and finds similarities with physical feelings. He perceives animals as similar creatures. They let him describe and define himself. He also can mention something invisible, transcendental and show the sphere of spirit, the light of God and extraterrestrial power. Animal images presented in the Book of Psalms and Book of Proverbs can be classified using subject criterion. Animals’ life is used to show a human being. Predators attacking their victims symbolize enemies waiting for a human soul. Sometimes they point at real danger for the whole nation. Animals can also act as human power and weakness. Due to them it is possible to describe people’s behaviour, emotions and features. What is more, they build spiritual world and present higher values. In two analyzed books from the Old Testament we find two different phenomena: symbolic polysemic (one symbol operates a lot of meanings) and symbolic synonymic (a few animalistic symbols help to express the same idea). The first phenomenon is presented by a lion and a horn, the second one by a lion, dog, bull, bees and unicorn. These animals represent villains who threaten spiritual human life. Animals appearing in the Boom of Psalms and Book of Proverbs constitute goodness or evil, spirit or matter, sphere light or darkness.