Application of a Graphene Oxide–Carbon Paste Electrode for the Determination of Lead in Rainbow Trout from Central Europe
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In the presented study, the content of lead in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) samples was examined. Rainbow trout were purchased in Prague (Czech Republic), Lodz (Poland) and Bratislava (Slovakia) from local fish shops and supermarkets belonging to popular chain stores. First, method for quantitative lead determination was developed with very good results (R 2 at 0.9997 in the range of 1.0 × 10−7–7.0 × 10−5 mol L−1 with limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) 2.18 × 10−8 and 7.24 × 10−8 mol L−1, respectively). Then, after mineralization, fish samples were analyzed using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) with a graphene oxide–carbon paste electrode (GO–CPE). Lead signals recorded on GO–CPE electrode were 15 % higher than those obtained on bare CPE. The coefficient of variation (CV) was found to be below 5 %. The selectivity of the proposed method was evaluated by the addition of selected heavy metals (zinc, copper, mercury, cobalt, nickel, iron) as possible interferents. Results were confirmed with reference method.
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