Nowadays Vilnius Region is a territory divided between Lithuania and Belarus. Many changes in political affiliation during last ten centuries caused that now it is still a region inhabited by many different nations: Lithuanian, Polish, Russian, Belarusian, Jewish etc. An existence of so many nations in this area caused lot of conflicts but also some forms of cooperation. During many years Lithuania and Poland was one country and lots of mutual historical facts are evaluated totally different by both sides. In 2004 Lithuania became a member of European Union what caused that part of historical Vilnius Region came under UE law. It has changed a situation of national minorities in this territory.