Standaryzacja zachowań ankieterskich w wywiadzie kwestionariuszowym jako proponowana technika ukierunkowania pilotażu
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Standardization of interviewers’ behaviour aims at the uniformization of the forms of additional utterances of interviewers. Such utterances depend first of all, on the kind of answers obtained from respondents. If the answer obtained (as a reaction to a given question) is considered by the interviewer as relevant one he does not intervene into the course of interviewing (i.e. he does not apply additional questions). When however the respondent after having heard the question is silent or gives an irrelevant answer, the interviewer should apply additional stimuli in order to obtain a relevant answer. The forms of such additional verbal stimuli depend first of all on the difficulties connected with a given question anticipated by the researcher. The purpose of such stimuli is to eliminate the difficulties arising in the course of interviewing. This type of standardization was used for the first time, by prof. J. Lutyński in the survey conducted in Włocławek in 1970. The forms of additional utterances of interviewers were pre-coded and embraced such additional elements of verbal behaviour of interviewers as: „W” (explanation), „P” (insistence), „1” (the question repeated once), „2” (the question repeated twice). The standardization programmed in this way was to provide the researcher with the information about the functioning of a given question. For interviewers this standardization constituted a system of directives for concrete behaviour in case of appearance of irrelevant answers.