Reformy gospodarcze na Łotwie w latach 1918–1940
The above article discussing the trends of economic transformations in Latvia in the period from 1918 to 1940 is the third study in the series of publications on An Outline of Agrarian Relations in Latvian Territories Throughout History. Two previous articles, i.e. Agrarian Relations in Latvian Territories Throughout History and The Political and Economic Situation of Inhabitants of Latvian Territories from the Middle of the 19th Century to the End of World War One were published respectively in “Zeszyty Wiejskie” [Journal of Rural Studies] – Zeszyt XIV, Łódź 2009 pp. 8–110 and “Zeszyty Wiejskie” – Zeszyt XVIII, Łódź 2013, pp. 66–87. The presented article refers to the course of actions during the Latvian War of Independence in the years 1918–1920, the process of establishing central authorities by the government headed by Kārlis Ulmanis, the struggle for liberation of all Latvian territories against the Bolshevik pressure and the first period of the economic development of the country. It is understandable that main attention was focused on the socioeconomic situation of a newly-formed independent state and its inhabitants, including ethnic minorities. In this context, special attention was given to an attempt to introduce the Bolshevik land reform in Latvia in 1919 as well as to the agrarian reform enacted in 1920. Political repercussions of this reform directed against German and Polish landowners were also discussed. A lot of attention was paid to the presentation of the economic development process of the First Republic of Latvia in the interwar period. The dynamic nature of this process was mainly related to an increase of Latvians’ activities in the area of industries, especially agricultural and food industry based on productive agriculture.