Kongres zbrojny u granic Francji. Niespełniona nadzieja kontrrewolucji spod znaku Tuileriów w latach 1791-1792
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This article re-examines a crucial aspect of French history between 1791-1792. the idea of armed congress which could be used as a tool against the French Revolution and as a measure to reestablish the monarchical power of Louis XVI. For a very first time this idea was mentioned in the letter written by Marie Antoinette to the Count Hans Axel von Fersen on July 8 1791. From the very beginnings the idea of the Queen and the King of France, supported in this matter by the principal adviser of Louis XVI in foreign affairs, acted as his emigrée minister, Louis Auguste Le Tonnelier baron de Breteuil, was confronted with the conception of open, armed intervention in the French internal affaires promoted by the King of France's brothers (Provence and Artois). The idea of armed intervention in France from the beginnings was accepted by the King of Sweden - Gustavus III. Just after the Varennes affair the King of Sweden started to prepare a monarchical coalition against the French Revolution. One of his secret emissaries was Hans Axel von Fersen who was sent to Vienna. It was Count Fersen who, against the intention of his own King, gave whole-hearted support to the idea of armed congress trying to convince and to gain to this cause the Emperor Leopold II and his ministers. In spite of a broad agitation and attempt to interest the Courts of Petersburg. Berlin and Madrid in the idea of armed congress, the Swedish diplomacy failed. The cause of this failure was the hesitation of Gustavus III who for a long time could not choose between the idea of armed congress and conception of assumtion by himself the leadership of a monarchical crusade against the Revolution. The idea of armed congress from the beginnings was fighted by the French emigrées, very strongly supported by the Empress of Russia - Catherine II. In this situation Gustavus III gave up the idea of armed congress and started to prepare open intervention in French affaires. The assassination of the King of Sweden in March 1792 was a very painful blow for the followers of the French Royal Couple. The death of Gustavus III meant retreat of Sweden from the participation in planned monarchical crusade against the French Revolution. The broke out of Austro-French war in April 1792 meant the end of the last hope of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette to reestablish monarch authority in France by the armed congress to be convoced near borders of France.