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The aim of this paper is to summarize the publications concerning the bacterial hemoglobin (Vitreoscilla). This is the first bacterial hemoglobin to be sequenced and physicochemical properties are determined. It showed the maximum sequence homology (24%) with lupin leghemoglobin (Lg) which properties also have been presented. Bacterial hemoglobin may function to enable the organism to survive in oxygen-limited environments by acting as an oxygen storage-trap or to facilitate oxygen diffusion.